Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)
Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)

Pharmacognosy´s topics and Chemistry of Natural Products

Pharmacognosy´s topics
Pharmacognosy

Topic I:

 


Introduction to Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products

 

Become familiar with Pharmacognosy´s conceptDefinition of some terminologies and classifications naming of vital importance to the understanding of this subjectRecognize the most important natural sources through which you can get these natural drugs and Pharmacognosy and Chemistry of Natural Products.


Pharmacognosy

Phytochemistry

Botanical Nomenclature. Herbs.

Drugs

Alternative medicine

Farmacoergasia

Topic II:

 

 

Pharmacoergasy

 

 

Become familiar with Pharmacoergasy concept and all aspects that flow from it as a branch within the subject of Pharmacognosy. Knowing and recognize the factors that influence the variation of the chemical composition of natural products.

 

 

 

 

Active ingredient

Collection of Herbs

Conservation of medicinal plants

 


Pharmacognosy

Topic III:  


 

Macromorphological characteristics of vegetative organs

 

Factors influencing the chemical composition of Medicinal Plants.General Characteristics. External Morphology. Classification. Gross examination of the organs: root. Stem. Sheet. Flower. Fruit. Seed.


Root
Stem
Leaves
Flower
Fruit
Seed
Farmacoergasia

Topic III.a:

 

 

Micromorphological characteristics of plant drugs

 

 

Introduction to micromorphological characteristics of vegetative organs. Histology and Histochemistry. Cell theory. Cell differentiation: plant cells and animal cells. Characteristics of plant cells.

 

 

 

 

Histology and Histochemistry

Cells

Plants cells


Pharmacognosy

Topic III.b:  


 

Macromorphological characteristics of vegetative organs

Plant tissue

 

Introduction to plant tissues. Pharmacognosy´s interest in the study of plant tissues. Overview, origin and classification of plant tissues. Meristematic or embryonic tissues. Adult tissues.

 

Tissues types classifications

Meristematic or embryonic tissues

Primary meristems

Secondary meristems

Meristemoids

Adult tissues

Protection

Dermal tissue

Parenchymal or nutritional

Vascular tissue

Support tissue

Secretory and excretory tissues

Farmacoergasia

Topic IV:

 

 

Photosynthesis

 

 

 


What the photosynthesis is? Process description. Equation of photosynthesisPhases of photosynthesis. Light phase and dark phase. Photosynthesis processes. Other products of plant´s synthesis

 

Phases of Photosynthesis

Other products of plant´s synthesis


Pharmacognosy
Farmacoergasia

Topic VI:

 

 

Extraction methods

 

Introduction to methods of extraction. Importance, characteristics and types of extraction methods: decoction, infusion, digestion, percolation, maceration.

 

Decoction

Infusion

Digestion

Percolation

Maceration


Pharmacognosy

Topic VII:  

 

 

Analysis of extracts

 

Extracts. Definition. Analysis of extracts. Production. Identification. Trials. Quantitative determination. Labelling.

 

Fluid extract

Tincture

Soft extract

Drt extract powder

Farmacoergasia

Topic VIII:

 

 

Carbohydrates

 

Carbohydrates or carbs. What are carbohydrates? Characteristics. Clasification: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. Therapeutic properties of carbohydrates.

 

Monosaccharides and disaccharides

Polysaccharides

Properties of carbohydrates


Pharmacognosy

Topic IX:  

 

 

Essential oils

 

Essential oils of plants. Definition and characteristics. Composition. Volatile Oils. Hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes, ketones, phenols

 

 

Terpenes

Monocyclic terpenes. Menthol - Limonene - thymol

Bicyclic terpenes. Camphor - borneol - pinene

Higher terpenes. Farnesol - beta carotene

Properties of essential oils

Examples of plants with beneficial essential oils

Farmacoergasia

Topic X:

 

 

Glycosides

 

Glycosides. Definitions, Classification and origin, Examples. Saponins

 

 

 

 

 

Classification and origin of the glycosides

Examples of glycosides

Saponins


Pharmacognosy

Topic XI:  

 

 

Alkaloids

 

Alkaloids. Definitions. Types. Structure. Classification of Alkaloids. Opium. Quina-tropane. Ergot-Xanthine-Rauwolfia. Xanthine. Veratrum-Vinca-Misc.

 

Classification of alkaloids

Opium alkaloids

Quina and tropane alkaloids

Xanthine, ergot and rauwolfia Alkaloids

Xanthine

Veratrum, vinca and miscellaneous

Farmacoergasia

Topic XII:

 

 

Tannins

 

Tannins. Definition. Characteristics and properties.

 

 

 

 

Plants with tannins


Pharmacognosy

Topic XIII:  

 

 

Vitamins

 

Definition, function, characteristics and classification of vitamins. Liposoluble and water-soluble vitamins. Vitamin A, B complex (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12, folic acid and Pantothenic acid). Vitamins C, D, E, F and K.


Introduction to vitamins

Vitamin A Vitamin B1

Vitamin B2

Vitamin B3

Vitamin B6

Vitamin B12

Folic Acid

Vitamin B5

Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Vitamin H
Farmacoergasia

Topic XIV:

 

 

Lipids

 

Definition of Lipids. Classification according to chemical structure. Fixed oils and fats, waxes, sterols, phospholipids and glycolipids.

 

Fixed Oils and Fats

Waxes

Sterols

Phospholipids

Properties of lipids

Uses of lipids


                               Topic XV:

Definition and characteristics of proteins. Functions. Presence in nature. Methods of extraction and isolation.

Topic XVI:

 

Defining plant exudates. Definition and characteristics of the resins, the oleoresins, the gum-resins and balsams.


 Topic XVII:

Characterization and types of plant pigments. Chlorophyll, carotene, flavonoids. Characteristics, structure and functions of chlorophyll.

Topic XVIII:

Introduction to heterocycles. Heterocyclic compounds. Chlorophyll, heme, plant hormones, nucleic acids.



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