Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)
Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)

Theme IX: Essential oils

Bicyclic terpenes. Camphor - borneol - pinene

Bicyclic terpenes. Characteristics. Camphor, borneol, pinene. Carane, pinane, camphane..

They belong to the group of carane, camphane and pinane having the following structures:

carane

camphane


pinane

Pinene

The pinene derives from pinane which includes a double bond between carbons 1 - 6. It is the main component of turpentine essence. There are 2 structures, a levorotatory and a dextrorotatory. Pinene is used in the paint and varnish industry as a solvent and is the raw material for the synthesis of many compounds.

Borneol

Borneol is the 2-camphanol and can be obtained by reduction. It is located in the branches of a tree that grows in Borneo and Sumatra and due to its resemblance to camphor is known as "Borneol camphor."

Camphor

Camphor is the 2-camphanone (the carbon 2 of camphane is the carbonyl group). It has with the camphane the same ratio as the carone with the carane. It is contained in the essential oil of camphor tree that grows mainly in Japan and Formosa.

Camphor

The camphor is a white mass, flexible and crystalline with penetrating odor, which melts at 176 ° C. Is used in medicine and mixed with nitrocellulose is used to make the celluloid.

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Bicyclic terpenes. Characteristics. Camphor, borneol, pinene. Carane, pinane, camphane..