Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)

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Theme XVII: Plant pigments


Flavonoids. Characterization, types and functions. Anthocyanins. Pelargonidin, cyanidin, delphinidin. Flavonoids structures.

There are many yellow pigments of plants known as flavones or flavonoids, derivatives from chromone, which are found mainly in yellow flowers, sometimes in the form of glycosides.


Chrysin is found in certain varieties of poplar and apigenin in parsley and garlic.


Anthocyanidins are structures related to flavones, blue and red pigments of flowers and fruits, which are found in them in the form of glycosides known as anthocyanins.

All numerous anthocyanidins which form the tonal range of the flowers, are derived from three different structures, although poorly differentiated, since they have the same basic skeleton. These structures are pelargonidin, cyanidin and delphinidin.


Flavonoids and anthocyanins are highly appreciated for medicinal properties as antimicrobials. By limiting the action of free radicals, flavonoids reduce the risk of cancer, improve arthritis and allergic symptoms, increase the activity of vitamin C.


Also block the progression of cataracts and macular degeneration, avoid hot flashes in menopause and fight other symptoms. 


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