Theme XVII: Plant pigments
Characterization and types of plant pigments. Chlorophyll, carotene, flavonoids. Characteristics, structure and functions of chlorophyll.
In plants there is a group of substances with complex structures that are the plant pigments. These include chlorophyll, carotene and its derivatives, flavonoids and anthocyanins which are the pigments of the flowers.
Chlorophyll is responsible for the absorption of daylight to fix carbon dioxide from the air by photosynthesis process, it exists in two forms: a and b. Both contain magnesium in organic combination with the formation of a complex heterocycle. Is a diester of methanol with a dibasic acid.
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The chlorophylls structure is accepted as a porphin group consisting of four pyrrolic groups bonded by methyl groups.
Magnesium atom is bonded to four nitrogen atoms of two normal and two coordinate covalent bonding.