Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)
Pharmacognosy - medicinal plants (herbs)

Herbs - Medicinal Plants

Grape - Vitis vinifera. Properties and benefits

Identification and origin of grape plant

Grape
Grape

Scientific name: Vitis vinifera

 

The grape plant has climbing stems through specialized organs called vine tendrils. The palmately veined leaves are arranged opposite on the branches. In most varieties, the vines tendrils are arranged in opposite positions every two or three successive leaves. The flowers form unisexual clusters, sometimes each plant bears only male or female flowers. The fruit, grapes, are grown in two-year-old vineyards and cut after collection.

 

Parts used: Leaves, fruit and the oil extracted from the seeds.

 

It is believed that the origin of the grapes grown in Europe is in the Caspian Sea region. The seed dispersal by birds, wind and water spread the plant westward to the Asian shores of the Mediterranean.

Content and Active ingredients of Vitis vinifera

leaves

Polyphenolic derivatives: anthocyanins, leuco-anthocyanins

 

Flavonoids (4-5%) (rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitroside, kenferol, luteolol). Gallic tannins and Catechins.

fruits

Abundant carbohydrates (glucose) and organic acids (tartaric, malic, succinic, citric and oxalic acids.

Seeds

15-20% unsaturated fatty acid (phenylacrylic acid derivatives)

Medicinal properties attributed to the Grape (benefits)

Anti-sclerotic effects: lipoprotein oxidation of low density (LDL) by free radicals is associated with initiation of atherosclerosis. The active ingredients of the grape reduce formation of this lipoprotein.

 

Leaves have venotonic, vasoprotective, astringent and diuretic effects.

 

The fruits are vitaminics, tonics, anticancer, hepatoprotective, promote hair growth and prevent ischemic processes.

 

The seeds oil: Hypolipidemic, prevents the increase of vascular permeability.

grapes fruits
grapes fruits

Therapeutic indications:

Leaves: Venotonic, vasoprotective, astringent, diuretic.

Fruits: Vitamin, restorative.

Oil seeds: Hypolipidemic

Grape uses

Contraindications

Usually does not have unwanted effects in recommended therapeutic doses.

Rarely can inhibit intestinal enzyme activity.

Preparation and Dosage

Internal use:

 

  • Infusion of grape leaves: One teaspoon per cup. Infuse 10 minutes. Three cups a day, after meals.
  • Fluid extract (1:1): 50 drops, 1-4 times daily.
  • Tincture (1:5): 50-100 drops, 1-3 times daily.
  • Dry extract (5:1), 300 mg, 1-4 times daily.
  • Fruits (Grapes): Food use. In naturopathic treatments is frequently use as cure to combat rheumatic problems, gout or cardio-renal diseases.
  • Seed Oil: Several tablespoons a day, or in place of butter and other oils.

External use:

 

  • Infusion (leaves): A teaspoon per cup. Infuse 15 minutes. Applied as a wash, eye drops or eye washes.
  • Decoction: 60 to 80 g of grape leaves per liter of water. Boil 15 minutes. Apply as foot baths or baths. To relieve the discomfort of varicose veins, it´s prescribed foot baths at alternating temperature: 5-10 minutes in a bowl of hot infusion, then switch to another bowl of cold water for 5-10 seconds. Change three or four times, beginning with the hot infusion and ending with the cold water. After that is recommended to massage legs upward and resting with legs up.

 

REMEMBER to always consult your doctor before combining natural products with any other treatment.

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References

  • Arne JL: Contribution to the study of procyanidolic oligomers: Endotelon in diabetic retinopathy. Gaz Med France 1982; 89(30):3610-3614.
  • Bagchi D; Garg A; Krohn RL et al. Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seedproanthocyanidin extract in vitro. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1997 Feb;95(2): 179-89.
  • Baruch. Effect of Endotelon in postoperative edema. Results of a double-blind study versus placebo in 32 female patients. Ann Chir Plast Esthet 1984;29(4):393-5.
  • Bavaresco L; Fregoni C; Cantu E; Trevisan M. Stilbene compounds: from the grapevine to wine. Drugs Exp Clin Res 1999;25(2-3):57-63.
  • Boissin JP; Corbe C; Siou A. Chorioretinal circulation and dazzling: use of procyanidol oligomers (Endotelon). Bull Soc Ophtalmol Fr 1988 Feb;88(2): 173-4, 177-9.
  • Corbe C; Boissin JP; Siou A. Light vision and chorioretinal circulation. Study of the effect of procyanidolic oligomers (Endotelon). J Fr Ophtalmol 1988;11(5):453-60.
  • Maffei Facino R, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Free radicals scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung 1994 May;44(5):592-601.
  • Maffei Facino R, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Procyanidines from Vitis vinifera seeds protect rabbit heart from ischemia/ reperfusion injury: antioxidant intervention and/or iron and copper sequestering ability. Planta Med 1996 Dec;62(6):495- 502.
  • Nutall SL, Kendall MJ, Bombardelli E et al: An evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a standardized grape seed extract, Leucoselect(R). J Clin Pharm Ther 1998; 23:385-389.
  • Tebib K, Rouanet JM, Besancon P. Effect of grape seed tannins on the activity of some rat intestinal enzyme activities. Enzyme Protein l994-95;48(l):51-60.
  • Ye X; Krohn RL: Liu W et al. The cytotoxic effects of a novel IH636 grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on cultured human cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem 1999 Jun; 196(1-2):99- 108.
  • Zhao J, Wang J, Chen Y, Agarwal R. Anti-tumor-promoting activity of a polyphenols fraction isolated from grape seeds in the mouse skin two-stage initiation-promotion protocol and identification of procyanidin B5-3'-gallate as the most effective antioxidant constituent. Carcinogenesis 1999 Sep;20(9): 1737-4.

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