Herbs - Medicinal Plants
Grape. Scientific name. Identification, origin, content and active ingredients. General characteristics of the grape plant (Vitis vinifera). Medicinal benefits attributed to grape. Uses, warnings, contraindications. Preparation and dosage..
Scientific name: Vitis vinifera
The grape plant has climbing stems through specialized organs called vine tendrils. The palmately veined leaves are arranged opposite on the branches. In most varieties, the vines tendrils are arranged in opposite positions every two or three successive leaves. The flowers form unisexual clusters, sometimes each plant bears only male or female flowers. The fruit, grapes, are grown in two-year-old vineyards and cut after collection.
Parts used: Leaves, fruit and the oil extracted from the seeds.
It is believed that the origin of the grapes grown in Europe is in the Caspian Sea region. The seed dispersal by birds, wind and water spread the plant westward to the Asian shores of the Mediterranean.
Polyphenolic derivatives: anthocyanins, leuco-anthocyanins
Flavonoids (4-5%) (rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitroside, kenferol, luteolol). Gallic tannins and Catechins.
Abundant carbohydrates (glucose) and organic acids (tartaric, malic, succinic, citric and oxalic acids.
15-20% unsaturated fatty acid (phenylacrylic acid derivatives)
Anti-sclerotic effects: lipoprotein oxidation of low density (LDL) by free radicals is associated with initiation of atherosclerosis. The active ingredients of the grape reduce formation of this lipoprotein.
Leaves have venotonic, vasoprotective, astringent and diuretic effects.
The fruits are vitaminics, tonics, anticancer, hepatoprotective, promote hair growth and prevent ischemic processes.
The seeds oil: Hypolipidemic, prevents the increase of vascular permeability.
Leaves: Venotonic, vasoprotective, astringent, diuretic.
Fruits: Vitamin, restorative.
Oil seeds: Hypolipidemic
Usually does not have unwanted effects in recommended therapeutic doses.
Rarely can inhibit intestinal enzyme activity.